the reproductive system as well as help skin heal from
bruises and protect the bones.
Effects on skin. As the body ages, the levels of estrogen decline and the skin can become more fragile, dry
and loose. Loss of estrogen is a major cause of sagging,
dry skin in women over 40. When estrogen levels are on
the high end of spectrum, melasma (most common in
pregnant women) can occur or even may cause premenstrual symptoms to be more severe. If a person’s estrogen
is not being metabolized in a normal manner, it can lead
to a variety of cancers, including breast cancer. Estrogen
can also signal sub-hormones to cause overgrowth of
tissue that causes endometriosis. This disease affects up
to 10% of women, which can cause painful and heavy
menstrual cycles as well as issues with infertility. 2 Endometriosis can cause side effects in skin, including more oil
and easily hyperpigmented conditions.
Testosterone is a hormone that is responsible for
many of the physical characteristics specific to adult
males. It is one of the principal androgen hormones, and
it plays a key role in reproduction and the maintenance
of bone and muscle strength. It is also a hormone that
is present in females but predominately at much lower
levels. Testosterone can affect the skin in many ways,
both for men and women.
Effects on skin. For men, it can help to thicken the
tissue surrounding the dermal and epidermal layers.
The thicker tissues may promote more collagen production and more elasticity. Obviously, it helps in building
larger muscles. Men also tend to have larger pores than
women, as testosterone motivates the sebaceous glands
to produce more sebum, which makes the skin supple.
Too much testosterone in men can lead to acne. The testosterone hormone in men also promotes hair growth all
over the body, especially in the facial area. The hair offers a protection for the skin. When there is hair growth
as well as normal sebaceous glands for a man, there also
tends to be fewer wrinkles. In contrast, men experience
hair loss when testosterone levels are low. 3
Women can have issues with testosterone as well
and should have those levels checked. When testosterone is too low, skin loses elasticity, tone and becomes
drier, whereas high levels can cause the sebaceous
glands to overproduce sebum and lead to cystic acne.